Zaha Hadid-柬埔寨種族滅絕研究中心 Sleuk Rith Institute Camb

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圖片說明:圖片提供/Zaha Hadid Architects


在柬埔寨文史中心(Documentation Center of Cambodia)的委託下,建築師Zaha Hadid將於柬埔寨金邊(Phnom Penh)設計一間種族滅絕研究中心(Sleuk Rith Institute Cambodia)以研究及保存當地歷史上紅色高棉(Khmer Rouge ,70年代柬埔寨國內的一支政治和武裝力量)的殘酷屠殺記錄,也將成為東南亞地區最大的研究屠殺歷史及文件中心,期望人們能記取教訓以避免歷史悲劇的再度發生,這同時也是Zaha Hadid在柬埔寨的第一個建築項目。在現代化的設計下,種族滅絕研究中心也規劃了學校及紀念博物館等教育設施。

Zaha Hadid表示,柬埔寨文史中心總監尤張(Youk Chhang)對紅色高棉時期屠殺歷史研究的精神對於研究中心的設立有著激勵的作用,且尤張本身就是大屠殺的倖存者,對於人權運動的努力也不遺餘力。

尤張指出,「我們所期待的族滅絕研究中心並非用來批評或取代已存在的紀念事物,也非一處僅用於觀光功能的場所,而是創造一處可讓後代可永遠研究及參訪的建築,並用來突顯出當地的文化與宗教傳統。」

圖片說明:圖片提供/Zaha Hadid Architects


研究中心大樓外形將設計為五棟木造獨立於地面的建築,但於樓層往上時產生出交織的構造而彼此連接著各部門及教學場所。大樓基部與頂部的面積大小各為80x30與88x38平方公尺,各高度則介於3~8層樓高之間。五棟大樓功能性不儘相同,圖書大樓用來典藏東南區地區最多有關屠殺記錄的文件;研究所大樓著重在屠殺、衝突及人權的研究;研究與文件中心提供可影響國家與區域性政策的課程,而媒體大樓及演講廳則可供研究中心及社區使用。

著名的柬埔寨吳哥窟建築(Angkor Wat)或是許多吳哥式建築皆呈現出複雜交錯及封閉連接式的設計,而研究中心也呈現出此種風格,創造出一系列外部與內部空間互相交錯的設計,讓參觀者可隨意在沉思、教育與討論的空間中遊走,加深在各空間中的體驗與學習,但在需要時各空間也可別獨立使用。

大樓中主要結構、外表及內部分隔空間利用當地木材構築而成,有著自然又溫暖的感覺。而在科技的協助下也設計出更複雜及單曲線的大樓線條。研究中心座落在金邊市中心南邊原本Boeung Trabek 高中校址處,學校曾在紅色高棉時期被作為集中營使用,這位置剛好也給了研究中心有著承先啟後的教育意義。

圖片說明:圖片提供/Zaha Hadid Architects


為了適應當地熱帶氣候,大樓在獨特造型下在較窄的底部有著遮陰的效果,而較高處的天窗則阻擋了強烈的陽光;考量在Mekong與Tonlé Sap河匯流處的緣故下,研究中心規劃在較高的位置以防範季節性洪水的侵害。

遊客經由一處可映射研究中心大樓外觀排水池上的堤道進入大樓內部,而排水池不但可將光線帶入大樓內部,也可用來收集雨水利用於大樓的供水系統並減少對地環境與下水道系統的影響衝擊。從大樓中央天井處進入研究中心,甚至前往學習中心與講堂的路上都可看見研究中心的收藏展示品。一樓處為講堂與教室,教師辦公室安排在較高樓層的戶外庭院區。在天井上方處則為文史資料中心、研究員與管理中心,一座連接橋則橫跨在天井上方連接著學習中心與圖書館。

圖片說明:圖片提供/Zaha Hadid Architects


研究中心同時規劃了被動式的環境保護系統及再生能源系統以減少能源使用上的浪費以確保當地的生態。大樓的獨特造型也有著減少吸收日光的功能,這也有助於文件與收藏展示品的保存;而像是廢水也可經過園區內的生態系統過濾後重新再利用。研究中心也設計了68,000平方公尺的紀念園區提供當地社區運動、都會植物水果公園與傳統草地的場所,而一處森林區則可提供臨時雕像的置放區。研究中心園區中許多原本荒廢的行人走道也被重新設計,以加強社區居民與研究中心間的連結。目前研究中心將於2015年開始動工,並預計於2016年落成使用。

圖片說明:圖片提供/Zaha Hadid Architects




圖片說明:圖片提供/Zaha Hadid Architects



圖片說明:圖片提供/Zaha Hadid Architects



【延伸閱讀】
Zaha Hadid Architects 事務所
http://www.zaha-hadid.com/

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編譯/蘇琨峰 圖文/Zaha Hadid Architects

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Profile
蘇琨峰/Andre

一隻喜愛新事物也對舊事物固執的牡羊。台北工專土木工程科、雲林科技大學營建工程結構組畢業,工作後決定離職前往澳洲再度充實自己並一圓留學夢,畢業於墨爾本大學經濟與商業研究所,主修商業與資訊管理。喜歡看建築、旅行探索、研究攝影、愛打網球、沉溺爵士樂當了爵士樂團薩克斯風手。目前為《欣建築/國際脈動》編譯、文字記者、辦理欣建築相關活動及國際領隊。

圖片說明:Courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architects


The Documentation Center of Cambodia’s (DC-Cam) has commissioned Zaha Hadid to design the much-anticipated genocide studies institute in Phnom Penh. The new campus, known as the Sleuk Rith Institute, will serve as an extension of DC-Cam’s work as the country’s go-to archive for Khmer Rouge history as well as a leading center for genocide studies in Asia. Within a modest campus, the institute will house a “cross-section of pursuits,” including a genocide studies center, a school, a museum for memorial and education purposes, and more.

A vision of Youk Chhang, a tireless human rights activist and investigator of the Khmer Rouge atrocities, the Sleuk Rith Institute will house the Documentation Centre of Cambodia’s one million document archive and, as the largest collection of genocide related material in Southeast Asia, will become a global centre for education and research into the documentation, causes and prevention of genocide.

圖片說明:Courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architects


Despite the tragic history explored at the institute, Youk Chhang’s research led to the very considered brief for a building that promoted reflection and reconciliation, and also inspired and innovated. “We were keen to create a forward-looking institution that deviates from the distress-invoking, quasi-industrial, harshness of most existing genocide memorial models. This is not to criticize or denigrate such models but, instead, to  emphasize that in light of a Cambodia’s rich cultural and religious traditions, we must move in a different and more positively-oriented direction,” stated Chhang.“The best memorials are not objects we visit once, contemplate, and file away. The best memorials evoke reflection and commemoration, but are also living, dynamic public places that engage with all generations in the community,” continues Chhang.

The institute’s design is organized as five wooden structures that are separate volumes at ground level, but interweave and link together as they rise upwards; connecting the different departments, visitors, students and staff within a singular whole. With an overall footprint of 80 meter x 30 meter at the base and 88 meter x 38 meter at roof level, the structures range between three to eight stories.

圖片說明:Courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architects


Each of these five buildings will house a different function: the Sleuk Rith Institute; a library holding the largest collection of genocide-related material in Southeast Asia; a graduate school focussing on genocide, conflicts and human rights studies; a research centre and archive to influence national and regional policies and discourse; a media centre and an auditorium that can be used by the institute and the entire community.

The architecture of the ancient temple site Angkor Wat, and Cambodia’s many other remarkable Angkorian sites, builds complexity by combining and interlocking a multitude of geometric forms in a formal progression of connected enclosures. As they gain in height and coalesce, the Sleuk Rith Institute’s five buildings define an intricate spatial composition of connecting volumes; generating a series of exterior and interior spaces that flow into each other to guide visitors through the different areas for contemplation, education, engagement and discussion.

圖片說明:Courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architects


The design connects the museum, library, school and institute at various levels, allowing different users to interact and collaborate, enhancing their understanding and experience. Yet each of the institute’s functions is also able to operate independently when required.Constructed from sustainably-sourced timber, the primary structure, exterior shading and interior partitions give natural scale, warmth and materiality.  The more complex forms have been designed and engineered to be assembled from economical straight and single-curved timber sections with established technologies.

The site is located in the grounds of the Boeung Trabek High School in Phnom Penh, south of the city centre. The existing school buildings (now abandoned when the high school moved to its new premises) were used as a re-education camp during the Khmer Rouge regime – as were many schools in Cambodia – making this a fitting location for the Institute: building on the past to educate the future.

To accommodate Cambodia’s tropical climate, the narrower lower levels of the institute are shaded by the building’s form, while louvers on the upper levels keep out strong sunshine. Located at the confluence of the Mekong and Tonlé Sap Rivers, the institute’s buildings will be built on raised terraces, to protect from Phnom Penh’s seasonal flooding.

圖片說明:Courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architects


Visitors approach the building on causeways above reflecting catchment pools that mirror the building’s form and bring light deep into the internal spaces. As with the catchment pools of Cambodia’s ancient temple sites including Sras Srang and Angkor Wat, these pools – and those on the upper level courtyard and terraces – will be fed by harvested rainwater and are integral to the institute’s water management processes that minimize the impact on the local environment and drainage systems.

Entering through the atrium at the centre of the building, visitors are welcomed by exhibits from the Institute’s collection. From here visitors are directed to the museum where exhibitions continue or to the school and auditorium. The auditorium is on ground level while classrooms and professors’ offices are organized around the outdoor courtyard above and continue on upper floors.

Above the entry atrium, the Institute houses the Documentation Centre archive, with offices for researchers and Institute administration on the top levels. A bridge is suspended above the atrium to connect the school and library.

The building’s passive design – including measures to reduce energy and water consumption while increasing system efficiencies, and the installation of renewable energy sources – will increase its ecological performance. The institute’s form minimizes solar gain, and the external shading system will be varied on each elevation to reduce solar gain whilst maintaining sufficient daylight levels where required. Thermal buffer zones protect the archive and exhibition spaces and further reduce energy consumption. Water condensation from the air handling will be recovered for reuse and foul water will be treated on-site via bio-reactors or a natural plant-based wastewater treatment system that can be incorporated within the park.

The horizontal roof of the building is hidden from view to house renewable energy sources that are extremely effective in Phnom Penh’s climate: photovoltaic cells for power and a solar thermal array for hot water generation. Plant and air-system heat exchangers will also be located on the roof, maximizing the area within the building for the institute’s commemorative, educational, cultural and community programs.

The institute includes a 68,000 square meter memorial park for the entire community with sport fields, urban vegetable garden and fruit orchards, traditional meadows and a forest that will house contemporary Cambodian sculptures, many of these commemorating the women that helped to rebuild the country. The park slopes away from the building to provide further protection against seasonal flooding. The southern end of the park is landscaped to become a large retention pond during heavy monsoon rains, alleviating the city’s existing flood drainage.  The park’s many pedestrian paths link together neighboring streets that had previously been disconnected, inviting the local community into the heart of the institute.

The Sleuk Rith Institute complex has been granted approval and is scheduled to start construction on site next year.

圖片說明:Courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architects



圖片說明:Courtesy by Zaha Hadid Architects



【More Information】
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http://www.zaha-hadid.com/ 

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Profile
Andre

A male Aries, loves learning new things and being nostalgic to old things. Academic background: Bachelor of Construction Engineering Department at National YunTech University, Taiwan and Diploma of Graduate School of Business and Economics at University of Melbourne. With character of a little introvert, addicting to architecture, photography, tennis, Jazz music and saxophone and being the translator of Xin Architecture/ International, reporter, holder of activities and international tour leader.


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