Heatherwick-誰說平行線不會相連 舊倉庫的華麗變身

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Photo Hufton+Crow

位於倫敦國王十字區的Coal Drops Yard 煤炭倉庫,主要由二棟分別建於1850及1860年代的維多利亞老倉庫組成,連結著自英格蘭北部而來的煤炭火車鐵軌。這次,來看看英國鬼才建築師Thomas Heatherwick又如何以其天馬行空的想法來改造這二棟百年老倉庫。

Photo Luke Hayes

Heatherwick接到的指令是將老倉庫改造成一個複合式商場及公共空間,重啟這曾有著華麗年代的兩層樓卸煤倉庫故事。老倉庫原本華麗的石瓦板、鑄鐵及磚牆結構呈現了歲月下的侵蝕痕跡,在1990年被棄置前曾做為輕工業、倉庫與夜店的場所。事務所表示,期望在改造後能重現老倉庫獨特的結構與故事,創造出另一獨特的商業與公共空間,而面臨的挑戰是將這個長形老舊且呈平行直線的建築塑造成人們可以休憩的都市天堂,過程中也參考了過去設計香港太古廣場購物中心的經驗。

Photo Luke Hayes

Photo Luke Hayes

將原本的山型牆屋頂延伸以串連出流動的通道空間,但非以另一矩型元素疊加至原結構上而造成視覺上更大的衝突。事務所打通了老倉庫的石磚牆並用鋼條與玻璃內來設計出連結二倉庫的空間,不僅創造出額外的挑空二樓天橋空間,也讓新的天橋成了這作品的視覺焦點。在從天橋的高點上,遊客可以一眼看盡從國王十字車站到Crick Institute的景色,而天橋所創造出的20米高遮蔭空地,也提供民眾一個可以駐足休息的地點,在空間上也足夠成為音樂會或舉辦表演的場地。

Photo Luke Hayes

Photo Luke Hayes

Heatherwick Studio

這個融合新舊面貌的屋頂成為了Coal Drops Yard的特色之一,35米寬的新延伸屋頂看似無縫的接合在一起,形成兩棟建築在空中接合的造型。除了創造一個能夠自我承重的設計,也需在新的建築下同時保留舊有的元素。建築師利用52根輕鋼條架立在舊建築之上,並且巧妙的隱藏在磚牆之後,隨著混凝土牆面延伸向上。二邊新增的屋頂空間各以四個桁架系統及20根鋼材撐起,創造出64面等距的落地景觀窗以欣賞都市全景。新屋頂以超過80000片瓷磚建成,屋頂的石板來自和維多利亞時期建築相同的採石場以達到一致的藍灰色色調。

Photo Hufton+Crow

Photo Hufton+Crow

如此創新的設計讓古蹟保存有了不同的意義,建築師也希望加強並改變現有建築,利用輕鋼架打造的屋頂看起來較為輕盈,也會下方舊有的磚牆、鐵製品等看似重的元素,呈現出下重上輕的強烈對比,新屋頂的曲線和原本直線的舊廠房也形成了一個新舊的對比,在新舊融合的設計下替老街區帶來新氣象。重生後的Coal Drops Yard煤炭倉庫創造出100,000坪的購物、用餐及活動空間,也讓水平及垂直空間串連了起來,提供了55種不同尺寸的空間以符合各種品牌店面需求,遊客可自由地遊走於高架通道二邊的出入口及經由樓梯穿梭於廣場與二樓空間之間。
Photo Hufton+Crow

Photo Hufton+Crow

這位鬼才建築師果然用了一般人想不到的辦法,將二棟平行的百年倉庫串接了起來,在新與舊,重與輕之間做了對比與平衡,也保留住了國王十字區的煤炭歷史。乍看之下,新增建的屋頂部份在視覺上或許已蓋住了舊有建築的風采,但在獨特造型及新增可用空間的考量下,也讓人在對維護舊建築的想法上有了新的衝擊。而設計視覺上的衝擊,不就是這位鬼才建築師最擅長的嗎!
Photo Hufton+Crow

Photo Hufton+Crow


中間層平面圖

庫倉區平面圖

高架層平面圖

基地圖


湯瑪斯.海澤維克 Thomas Heatherwick
湯瑪斯.海澤維克是一名英國設計師,在過去20多年來完許多跨界的設計創作,以其精細度、創新和原創性著稱。Heatherwick Studio工作室總是能敏銳地兼顧大格局及細節,著力於創意研發並轉化為造型獨特的產品或建築。工作室由170位卓越建築師及設計師所組成的設計團隊緊密合作,並總能以非同尋常的思路挑戰原始設計的每個細節,針對不同需求製作出最獨特的設計方案,並將藝術性的思維運用到現代城市設計的需求之中。湯瑪斯曾獲大英帝國司令勛章(OBE),同時為英國皇室建築師協會榮譽會員、皇室院士,並於2004年成為業界最年輕的皇室設計師。


[國外建築走讀資訊]
>【主題旅遊】英國當代建築全覽!Heatherwick釀酒廠及CoalDropsYard、泰特美術館、帝國戰爭博館北館9日
行程怎麼走:https://goo.gl/1fzHms


Article source
Originally part of Lewis Cubitt’s plan for King’s Cross in central London, this pair of elongated Victorian warehouses was built between the 1850s and 60s to store and transfer coal across London, delivered by rail from northern England. The studio was commissioned by the King’s Cross Development Partnership to revitalise the site into a retail quarter.

The grandeur of the two-storey coal drops had faded with the demise of coal production.
Crowned with slate hipped roofs, their ornate cast-iron and brick structures had become partially derelict, serving light industry, warehousing and nightclubs before partial abandonment in the 1990s. We wanted to celebrate the unique texture and history of the industrial buildings while also creating a unified new public space and retail destination.

Our challenge was to transform the dilapidated buildings and long, linear site into a lively retail precinct where people could gather and circulate with ease . To develop the concept, we drew on knowledge gained from designing Hong Kong’s Pacific Place shopping mall.

We proposed to extend the inner gabled roofs of the warehouses, which would link the two viaducts and define the yard, as well as creating fluid patterns of circulation. Rather than adding another rectangular element between them that would have collided with their geometry, the existing roofs rise and stretch towards each other until they touch above the public courtyard. This intervention forms a new upper storey and gives the project a central focus.

From the elevated vantage point, visitors can survey views south to King’s Cross and the Crick Institute, or north to Cubitt Square. Beneath, the new roof creates a sheltered twenty-metre-high space for people to linger in as well as providing a venue large enough to host concerts or performances.

An amalgam of old and new, the roof form and patina is specific to the site. The new 35-metre-wide extension was designed to flow seamlessly from the original gables and create the illusion of two buildings lightly touching in mid air. This required a complex structural solution. To create a self-supporting intervention that also preserved the integrity of heritage elements, 52 new steel columns were threaded through the existing buildings, concealed behind aged brick and iron, and shored up by concrete walls and cores.

Each of the curving new roof ribbons is formed of 20 steel sections bolted onto four trusses and tied back to the columns. Framing the top floor’s panoramic outlook are 64 panels of full-height structural glass arranged in a staggered, serrated pattern. The cladding of the new roof includes over 80,000 tiles and the roof slates are drawn from the same Welsh quarry as the original Victorian building to give a consistent blue-grey hue.

Alongside the primary design adaptation of the roof is the wider restoration of historical structures.
The studio sought to enhance and adapt existing buildings as much as possible. Adopting a light touch, where necessary, new additions drew on the palette of aged ironwork, soot-stained brick, slate, timber boards and the cobbled yard of stone setts. Together with more recent signage and graffiti, these rich textures are retained, preserving the Coal Drops’ distinct character.

Giving 100,000 square feet in total for shopping, dining and events, the retail quarter is conceived of as a series of streets linked horizontally and vertically. In contrast to the homogenous experience of a shopping mall, the 55 units vary in size and accommodate a range of retailers – from fledgling pop-up stores to large-scale units for established brands. Entrances at both ends of the viaducts and multiple connections into the yard via bridges and stairs create an accessible space that encourages people to pass through and around the project naturally.
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編譯簡介 蘇琨峰/Andre

一隻喜愛新事物也對舊事物執著的牡羊。台北工專土木工程科、雲林科技大學營建工程結構組、墨爾本大學經濟與商業研究所,主修商業與資訊管理。喜歡看建築、旅行探險、攝影、網球、及爵士樂團薩克斯風手。目前為《欣建築/國際脈動》編譯、文字記者、規劃欣建築國外建築相關行程及國際領隊。


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